I was looking through my JavaScript operators the other day and came across the modulus operator. The modulus operator is used in almost all programming languages, and usually it is represented by a "%" sign. It performs what is called the modulo operation.

OK, now that I've thrown that at you, how do you use it, what does it do, and of what use is it?

First let's show how its used. In JavaScript it looks like this:

var result = 14 % 2 ;

The value of "result" is 0 .

And in PHP it looks like this:

$theresult = 15 % 2 ;

The value of "$theresult" is 1 .

a % b is pronounced "a modulo b" where a is the dividend, and b is the divisor.

Not much difference in the two languages syntax, and in fact, it is used with the same syntax in all the web programming languages, such as: ActionScript, C, ColdFusion, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, and Tcl.

What does it do? It gives you the remainder of a division. In the JavaScript example, 14/2 = 7 with no remainder left over, so the modulo of 14 % 2 = 0. There is no remainder. In the PHP example, we have 15/2 = 7 with 1 left over. So 15 % 2 = 1 since we have a remainder of 1. Pretty simple.

We can use other numbers than 2 as our divisor.

15 % 4 = 3 The nearest number with no remainder is 12. 15-12 gives us 3.

What happens when you have a minus sign in the divisor?

13 % -4 = 1

The answer always takes the sign of the dividend. So,

-13 % 4 = -1

We can use the modulo with other math operations.

22 % ( 9 + 2) = 0

What if the divisor is bigger then the dividend? Then the value of the modulo is the same as the dividend.

12 % 16 = 12

What about floats?

0.5 % 0.3 = 0.2

This will work fine with JavaScript, as both integers and floats are the same number data type in JavaScript, but with languages like PHP, that have integers and floats as separate data types, it will not.

PHP has a separate function to do floating modulo, fmod(), like so:

$a = 5.7; $b = 1.3; $theFloatMod = fmod($a, $b); or $theFloatMod = fmod( 5.7, 1.3) //The answer $theFloatMod = 0.5;

Of course, for integers, PHP uses the same syntax as JavaScript.

Before talking about what the modulo is used for, let's go over the range of possible modulo answers. If we have $c = $a % $b, then:

1. If $b goes evenly into $a, then we know $c = 0.

2. If $b is bigger than $a, then we know $c = $a.

3. Finally, the way its normally used, where $a is bigger than $b. The answer will be between $b-1 and 1.

Now, the big question, what's it used for?

Well, we can find the number of 10's, 100's, or 1,000's in a number. It goes something like this for 10's.

$answer = ($theNumber - ($theNumber % 10))/10; //Let's work an example $theNumber = 92; $answer = (92 - (92 % 10))/10 = (92 - 2)/10 = 9 // For 100's the formula would be: $answer = ($theNumber - ($theNumber % 100))/100;

If we are iterating through an array repeatedly to put a grid on the screen, for example, the modulo operator can be used to determine the end of the array, and reset to the beginning index value by using the maximum number of the array, like so: ( (i++) % maxArrayDimension)

Finally, the main use of the operator is to determine if a number is odd or even, as we did above. If you divide any number by 2 and it comes up with a modulo of "0", it's an even number. If it comes up with a "1", it's an odd number. We then can use this in a conditional statement, and do something with it, for example, a table row, if it's an odd row, we could change the background color of the row for easier reading.